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 A code using more signal elements than necessary to represent the intrinsic information.The redundancy may be used for error-control purposes.
 
  
 A digital device that amplifies, reshapes, retimes, or performs a combination of any of these functions on a digital input signal for retransmission. The term repeater originated with telegraphy and referred to an electromechanical device used to regenerate telegraph signals. Use of the term has continued in telephony and data communications.
 
  
 In data transmission, the content of the control field of a response frame advising the primary station concerning the processing by the secondary station of one or more command frames.
 
  
 A digital code having two information states, e.g. , 0 and 1 or mark and space, in which code the signal returns to a rest state during a portion of the bit period.
 
  
 A network topology in which every node has exactly two branches connected to it.
 
  
 In data communications, a functional unit used to interconnect two or more networks. Routers operate at the network layer (layer 3) of the ISO Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model. The router reads the network layer address of all packets transmitted by a network, and forwards only those addressed to another network.
 
  
 The process of determining and prescribing the path or method to be used for establishing telephone connections or forwarding messages.
 
  
 A matrix associated with a network control protocol, which gives the hierarchy of link routing at each node.